New immune cells found in breast milk

New immune cells found in breast milk
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It is well known that breastfed babies tend to be healthier than babies receiving a bottle filled with formula, especially during their first year of life, and that the benefits are many. In addition, the longer a baby is breastfed, the deeper the health effects throughout his or her life.

Scientists use the developing field of stem cell biology to differentiate cell types derived from breast milk. There are countless studies on the benefits that mothers offer their children when they choose to breastfeed, but one of the discoveries of the last decade has been the millions of immune cells known as innate lymphoid cells, or ILCs. According to a study by JAMA Pediatrics published in 2018:

“Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), a new class of negativelyligned lymphoid cells, are essential for intestinal microbiome and adaptive immunity in infants. The innate lymphoid cells have been classically divided into 3 subgroups of ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3. on their cytokine secretion and transcription factor profiles”.1

As part of the above-mentioned research, scientists conducted an in-depth cellular analysis of the fresh milk of four breastfeeding women and discovered that CIL can not only influence the immune system of babies, but also fight inflammation and improve tissue health.

LICs can protect breastfeeding mothers from their babies’ infection and possibly allow a change in the content of breast milk to help the baby overcome such infection. In addition, scientists say that some immune cells, such as leukocytes, which are white blood cells that fight infections, increase breast milk production in response to infections in babies.2

Breast milk differs according to the mother’s weight

Another recent study shows that the breast milk of mothers of normal weight is different from that of.3 In addition, variations in small molecule metabolites in breast milk may increase risk factors for. The study, conducted by the Joslin Diabetes Center, was quite revealing:

“The objective was to identify the molecular characteristics of breast milk according to the mother’s weight status (normal or overweight/obese), and then to determine if there were differences that predicted excess weight during the first months of an infant’s life.

At one month of age, 10 metabolites have been found that differentiate obese / obese mothers from lean mothers. Of these, four have been identified as nucleotide derivatives and three as complex carbohydrates called oligosaccharides, which can alter the intestinal microbiota.

At six months of age, the analysis revealed that 20 metabolites differed in overweight women compared to thin women. In addition, milk adenine in obese mothers was associated with greater weight gain in infants. “4

New research: breast milk and advances in stem cell biology

The journal Human Cell published a study in April 2019 involving Russian and British researchers. It notes that studies continue to provide information on “the purification, propagation and differentiation of certain types of breast milk progenitor cells”.5 the possible fate of these cells and the fact that they have many properties typical of.

Much more than just nutrition is left to breastfed babies. They are also provided with specially balanced essential nutrients and “functionally distinct bioactive components”6 crucial to the health and well-being of newborns and older babies. An important aspect is that breastfeeding reduces the risk and susceptibility to infection.7

also provides infants with a complex combination of nutrients directly from their mothers’ immune cells, while supporting, regulating and adapting their babies’ immune systems. Cells essential to health pass through the gastrointestinal tract and colonize optimally in the spleen, liver and lymph nodes.8 In addition:

“Communication between the components of breast milk and their natural host, the infant, which creates a symbiotic commensal relationship, has allowed some researchers to suggest that breast milk is a living system and could even be considered an organ.”9

Breast milk has an extraordinary influence on the health of infants, who consume it regularly. One of the most dramatic is the rapid cellular response while they are being fed. However, every aspect of meeting the immediate needs of each baby is currently unknown. One study suggests that human breast milk could be considered a.ten Another study shows that:

“The constant function of (human) milk is to provide young children with nutrition, protection and development programmes with short- and long-term effects. Among its components, breast milk contains maternal cells, from leukocytes to epithelial cells. various stages of development that include stem cells, progenitor cells, lactocytes and myoepithelial cells. “11

Leukocytes are part of your body’s immune system and help fight infections and diseases. Epithelial tissue, which covers all exposed surfaces of the body, helps to protect against many harmful factors, including pathogens.12

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Unique properties of stem cells derived from breast milk

An Australian study shows that breast milk has an abnormal potential to become tumorigenic and that their ability to form teratomas – a type of germ cell tumour that can include several different types of tissue, such as bones, hair and muscles – is low.13 The study concludes:

“These results provide evidence that breast milk represents a new and non-invasive source of patient-specific stem cells with multiple lineage potential and establishes a method for expanding these cells in culture.

They also highlight the potential of these cells to be used as new models to understand the plasticity of adult stem cells and breast cancer, with potential use in bioengineering and tissue regeneration. “14

A Canadian study reported in 2017 that breastfeeding prevents (NEC), a devastating disease that mainly affects premature babies when their intestinal walls are “invaded by bacteria, which cause local infection and inflammation that can eventually destroy the intestinal wall”.15

However, the study also shows that exosomes (cellular components or vesicles located outside a cell) purified from breast milk are able to promote the growth of intestinal epithelial cells, such as viability, proliferation and stem cell activity in infants even when they are.16

The study concludes: “These results provide information on the mechanism of action of breast milk in the intestines. Exosome administration is a promising prevention method for infants at risk of developing NEC when breastfeeding is not tolerated.”

History of breastfeeding (or not) and the results that make you think

Breastfeeding is recognized as an indispensable part of childbirth or until alternatives to breastfeeding have begun, apparently as early as 2000 BC, and even more so when it was invented. According to a report entitled “A History of Infant Feeding”, alternatives to optimal breastfeeding have used several pathways, including breastfeeding, cow’s milk and formula.

“In the 1920s, scientists also began to develop milk-free formulas for infants allergic to cow’s milk. The first milk-based formula was made from soybean flour and was made available to the public in 1929. Like the first preparations introduced at the end of the 19th century, essential nutrients, especially vitamins, which were finally resolved through vitamin fortification.

As formulas evolved and research confirmed their effectiveness, manufacturers began to advertise directly to physicians… In the 1940s and 1950s, physicians and consumers considered the use of the formula as a well-known, popular and safe alternative to breast milk. As a result, breastfeeding declined steadily until the 1970s.17

According to the report, breastfeeding was again promoted, but in 1988, the formula industry began advertising directly to the public, which again led to an increase across the United States. Subsequent studies have shown positive results for breastfed babies – and disadvantages for formula:

  • Atopy – Hypersensitivity or an allergic reaction such as eczema, asthma and allergic reactions to food have been characterized.18 with “asthma exacerbations accounting for 50% of all emergency hospital visits”,19 which “significantly reduces the quality of life of young children”.20
  • Diabetes mellitus – “Short-term breastfeeding and early introduction of cow’s milk can cause autoimmunity of beta cells in the pancreas, leading to type 1 diabetes.“2122 Breastfeeding can also reduce obesity in children and help prevent type 2 diabetes.23
  • Infant obesity – Breastfeeding reduced obesity, while obesity in breastfed infants was much more prevalent.24 In addition, infants who were breastfed for a longer period of time, for example, several months, had the lowest risk of being breastfed.25

The serious consequences and diseases observed in the United States today are the result of a decrease in the number of breastfed babies in the 21st century. The historical study concluded that breastfeeding is the best:

“Research suggests that breastfeeding prevents health problems, while formula feeding is linked to their development. This evidence confirms that breastfeeding remains the best source of nutrition for infants and the safest method of feeding them.”26

CIL:’As a central command without soldiers’

Babak Baban, an immunologist in the Department of Oral Biology at Dental College, says there are several types of RCI in babies’ tissues as they develop, but they seem “immobile and inactive, waiting for a developed immune system to communicate with them”. from Georgia to Augusta.27

Cells remain “upstream” ready to initiate and advance an immune response if necessary, he adds. “Until then, these cells are like a central command in every tissue without soldiers.”

However, rather than attacking pathogens directly, ILCs send cytokines to tell the most abundant immune cells, called macrophages, to handle them.28 According to Science Daily, which summarizes the JAMA article (which is hidden behind a pay wall):

“Macrophages, which literally means “large eaters”, are the largest white blood cells and are much better studied than ILCs. They are known for their ability to wrap unwanted elements such as bacteria, viruses and dead tissues, and can also help. encourage or calm inflammation.29

Scientists say that type 1 is the most common among the three main types of RInC transferred from breast milk to babies. This ILC survives in the infant’s intestine for at least several days and not only protects against, but also helps to form the basis of its own protective immune system.

“The moment you were born, you start building a microbiome”

According to Jack Yu, head of pediatric plastic surgery at MCG, their research, which included mouse studies, showed that CILs help build your microbiome from birth. Baban, the corresponding author of the study, adds that ILC3 “specifically helps to form the protective mucous layer of the intestine and to react to the microbiome as it develops”.30

In addition, Baban explains that breastfed babies benefit from another first-line protection against immunoglobulin G, the most common antibody in our bloodstream and the only one that is transferred through the placenta.31

Dr. Jatinder Bhatia, an advocate for breastfeeding, also noted that, rather than formula, donor breast milk is used in the neonatal unit of the Children’s Hospital of Georgia when breast milk is not available.